TSPSC Radiographer Syllabus 2017-18
TSPSC Radiographer PAPER-I Syllabus
TSPSC Radiographer GENERAL ABILITIES Syllabus
1. Current Affairs: International, National and State.
2. Society, Heritage and Culture, Polity, Economy, Human Development Indices and the Development Programmes in India and Telangana.
3. Natural Resources in India and Telangana: their distribution, exploitation, conservation and related issues.
4. Basic concepts of Ecology and Environment and their impact on health and economy; Disasters and Disaster management.
5. Impact of changing demographic trends on health, environment and society.
6. Agriculture, Industry, Trade, Transportation and Service sectors in India and Telangana.
7. Food adulteration, Food processing, food distribution, food storage and their relevance to public health.
8. Recent trends in Science and Technology.
9. Telangana Statehood movement and formation of Telangana State.
10.Moral values and Professional ethics.
11.Logical Reasoning: Analytical Ability and Data Interpretation.
TSPSC Radiographer Syllabus 2017-18
TSPSC Radiographer PAPER II Syllabus
TSPSC Radiographer RADIOGRAPHER (Diploma Level) Syllabus
UNIT – I : Human Anatomy
Human Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology relevant to Radiology.
Scope of Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology – Definitions and Terms in Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology – Structure and function of human cell Elementary tissues of human body – Brief account on composition of blood – functions of blood elements – Blood Group and coagulation of blood.
- Cardio Vascular system (structure and functions of various part of the hear, arterial and venous system. Brief account on common cardiovascular disorders)
- Respiratory system (Various parts of respiratory system and their functions, physiology of respiration)
- Digestive system (Names and various parts of digestive system – Liver , Spleen, Gall bladder, Pancreas, Buccal cavity, Pharynx, Oesophagus, stomach, intenstine etc., Physiology of digestion and absorption)
- Urinary system (various parts of urinary system and its function-structure and function of kidneys – physiology of urine formation – pathophysiology of renal disease and edema)
- Reproductive system (Physiology and anatomy of male and female reproductive system – prostate and uterus and Ovaries etc.,)
- Musculoskeletal system (classification of bone and joints, structure of skeleton – structure of skeletal muscle – physiology of muscle contraction)
- Nervous system (various parts of nervous system – Brain and its parts – functions of nervous system – spinal cord nerves)
- Ear, Nose, Throat and Eye (Elementary knowledge of structure and functions of organs of taste, smell , hearing vision)
- Endocrine system (Endocrine glands, their hormones and functions – Thyroid, Parathyroid, Suprarenal, Pituitary, Pituitary and Thymus
- Haemopoietic and Lymphatic system (Name of the blood vessels and Lymph gland locations)
- Surface Anatomy and Surface markings of human body
- Outline Anatomy and surface markings of Human Body
- Outline on pathology of various systems of CVS, RS, CNS, Musculoskeletal systems, GIT, GUT, Reproductive systems, Pathology of radiation injury, basics in pathology of malignancies.
UNIT – II Conventional and Automated processing Techniques
Dark Room Planning: For A Small Hospital, For A Large Hospital, Location Of Dark Room Construction Of Dark Room, Ventilation, Wall Protection, Entrance To Dark Room.
Dark Room: Instruction To Staff, Dry Bench, Hopper, Drawer, Cupboard, Loading And Unloading Cassettes Hangers, Types Of Hangers And Storage Of Hangers, Printing, Wet Bench, Cleanliness, Control Of Dust, Dark Room Sink, Hatches, Drier, Safe Lights.
X-Ray Films: Glass, Cellulose And Polyester Bases Structure Of X-Ray Films – Emulsion, Gelatin, Base And Supercoating Types Of X-Ray Films, Single Coated, Duplitised, Spectral Sensitivity, Colour Sensitivity Grainness Of Films, Speed Of Films, Screen & Non-Screen Films, Various Formats Of Films.
Films for Special Procedures: Storage Of Film Materials And Radiographs, Record Of Film Stock, Characteristic Curves.
Intensifying Screens: Fluorescence – Phosphors
Phosphors Employed: – Calcium Tungstate, Barium Fluochloride etc.
Rare Earths; Construction of Intensifying Screens; The Influence of Kilovolatage In Different Phosphors Intensification Factor Resolving Power of Intensifying Screens Speed of Screens
Screen Film Contact Tests
Types of Intensifying Screens
Advantages and Limitations of Intensifying Screens.
X-Ray Cassette: Construction of X-Ray Cassettes, Types Of Cassettes, Mounting Intensifying Screens on Cassettes, Identification of Cassettes, Care of Cassettes
Processing Methods: Preparation of Solution, Manual Processing Apparatus, Control of Temperature, Replenishment, Rapid Processing Automatic Processor – Principle and Features, Water Supply, Use of Thermostat,
Processing of Cut Films And Roll Films.
Developer: Constituents, Characteristic, Manual and Automatic Processors, Effects on Developing Time, Temperature, Agitation, Replenisher, Exhaustion
Fixer: Constituents, Characteristics, Manual and Automatic Processors, Fixing Time and Clearing Time Factors Affecting Fixing Time, Replenisher, Exhaustion
Film Faults: Fog – Various Fogging In Films, Causes And Prevention, Stains – Types, Causes And Prevention Spots And Splashes – Types, Causes.
UNIT – III Radiological Physics & Radiological Equipments
SECTION A- Radiation Physics
Principles of Radiation Detection And Measurement: Gas-Filled Detectors (Ionization Chambers, Proportional Counters And Geiger Muller Counters) Scintillation Detectors, Thermoluminescent Dosimeters (Tld). Roentgen
And Rad. Simple Principles Of Dosimeters.
Biological Effects Of Radiation: Chemical Effects Of Radiation – Radiolysis Of Water ; Production Of Free Radicals, Radicals Reactions, G-Valve. Effects NonStochastic Effects, Chromosome Aberrations And Mutations. Radiation Effects On Whole Body (Early Effects And Late Effects). Concept Of Doubling Dose. Risk Factors.
UNIT – IV
SECTION B- Medical Physics
Mains Supply: Generation Of Electrical Energy, Distribution Of Electrical Energy, Use Of Electrical Energy, Polyphase Supplies, Availability Of Different Voltages, Feeder Cables, Line Voltage Drop; Mains Switches, Fuses, Circuit Breakers. Earthing, Insulation, High Tension Cables Construction, Design.
Diagnostic High Tension Circuits: Self Rectified, Half-Wave, Full-Wave, Rectifier, 3 Phase, Capacitor Discharge, Constant Potential. Main Voltage Compensation, Mains Resistance Compensation, Compensations For Mains Frequency Variation.Control Of Tube Voltage, Kilovoltage Compensation; Filament Circuit, Control Of Tube Current, Space Charge Compensation. High Tension (Tube Selector) Switch. Meters- Function; Use Of Shunts. Meters Commonly Found In Diagnostic X-Ray Equipment, Position In Circuits, Reading Meters..
Switching and Timing: Exposure Timers, Spring Activated, Synchronous, Electronic, Auto Timers, Exposure Switching -Mechanical Contactors, Electronic Switching In Low Tension And High Tension Circuits. Interlocking Circuits – Use Of Relays, Tube Overload Protection. Circuit Diagrams – Simple Circuit Diagrams As Illustration Of Sequence From Mains Supply To Controlled X-Ray Exposures, Block Diagrams.
UNIT – V
X-Ray Tubes: Rotating Anode X-Ray Tubes, Design, Rating, And Use Of Rating Charts, Care Of The X-Ray Tubes; Inherent Filtration And Additional Filtration; Practical Considerations In The Choice Of Focus; Speed Of Anode Rotation; Angle Of Anode Inclination. Grid-Controlled X-Ray Tube.
I Fluoroscopy and Image Intensifiers:
Direct Fluoroscopy, Fluoroscopy Image, Fluoroscopic Screen, Explorators (Serial Changers, Spot Film Devices) Radiation Protection Including Integrating Timer. Tilting Tables. Principles And Construction Of Image Intensifiers, Television Camera Tubes And Cathode Ray Tubes. Recording The Intensified Image, Methods Of Viewing The Intensified Image, Equipment For Fluorography And Cine-Fluorography. Radiographic and Fluoroscopic Tables, Telecommand Tables.
UNIT – VI
Regional Radiography – General
Radiography Techniques -I
Positions Of The Patient: Erect, Sitting, Supine, Prone, Lateral, Oblique, Decubitus Etc., Relative Position Of X-Ray Tube And Patient, Relevant Exposure Factors. Use Of Accessories Such As Radiographic Cones, Grid And Positioning Aids.
Upperlimb: Routine Projections For The Whole Hand, Fingers, Wrist Joint, Forearm, Elbow Joint And Humerus. Supplementary Projections For Scaphoid, Carpal Tunnel Ball Catchers Projections, Head Of The Radius, Supracondylar Fracture And Olecranon Process.
Lowerlimb: Routine Projections For The Whole Foot, Toes, Calcaneum, Ankle Joint, Leg, Knee-Joint, Patella And Femurs. Supplementary Projections For Axial Projection For Patella.
Shoulder Girdle And Thorax: Routine Projections For The Shoulder Joint, Scapula, Acromio-Clavicular Joint,
Clavicle, Sternoclavicular Joint, Sternum And Ribs.
Pelvic Girdle And Hip Region : Routine Projections For The Whole Pelvis, SacroIliac Joints, Hip Joint And Neck Of Femur.
Vertebral Column: Routine Projections For Atlanto-Occipital Joint, Cervical Spine, Cervico Thoracic Junction, Thoracic Spine, Lumbar Spine, Lumbo-Sacral Region, Sacrum And Coccyx. Supplementary Projections For The Intervertebral Foramina, Posterior Arch Of Atlas, Flexion And Extension Of Cervical Spine,
Skull: Routine Projections For Skull And Facial Bones. Supplementary Projections For Trauma, Towne’s & Method, Sella, Turcica, Optic Foramina, Jugular Foramina, Temporal Bones, Mastoids Petrous Bone, Zygomatic Arches, Orbits, Maxillae, Nasal Bones, Mandible, Temporomandibular Joints.
Nasal Sinuses: Techniques For Frontal, Maxillary, Ethmoidal And Sphenoid Sinuses, Erect And Horizontal Projections For Fluid Levels.
Teeth: Routine Projections Of All Teeth –: Intra-Oral And Extra-Oral Projections. Orthopantomography.
Chest: Routine Projections for Lungs, Cardia And Diaphragm. Supplementary Projections For Thoracic Inlet, Decubitus, ‘Apicugrams.
Abdomen: Kub, Erect Abdomen , Decubitus Projection,
UNIT – VII
Radiographic Techniques – Advanced
- Barium Swallow
- Barium Meal – Single contrast and double contrast
- Hypotonic Duodenography
- Barium meal follow through
- Small bowel enema
- Barium Enema
- Oral Cholecystography
- Endoscopic Retrograde Choledochopancreatography (ERCP)
- Excretion Urography
- Reterograde Pyeloureterography
- Micturating Cysto Urethrography – Urodynamic Investigations
- Ascending Urethrography
- Percutaneous Catheterisation
- Catheterization Sites, Asepsis
- Guide Wire, Catheter, Pressure Injector and Accessories
- Use of Digital Subtraction , single plane and biplane
- Cervical Myelography
- Lumbar myelography
- Air Encephalography
UNIT – VIII
Recent advances in Radiology
- High Kilo Voltage Technique
- Ionic monomers
- Nonionic Monomers
- Ionic dimmers
- Nonionic dimmers
- The quantity of iodine required
- Adverse reactions to radiological contrast media
- Idiosyneratic anaphyloctoid reactions
- Nonidiosyncratic reactions
o Minor reactions
o Intermediate reaction
o Severe life threatening reaction
- Factors predisposing to adverse reaction
- General principles of investigating patients at increased risk
- The choice of contrast medium
o High –Versus low – osmolar contrast media
- Contrast media related to specific clinical areas
o Renal tract
o Nervous system
o Cardiovascular system
- Prevention of adverse reactions to RCM
- Contrast media , the endothelium , and blood coagulation
Radiation hazards and protection
- During radiography
- During fluoroscopy
- Effects of radiation on human tissues
- Permissible doses
- Measurement of radiation doses
- Dosages in diagnostic radiology
- Protective gadgets in RD Department
- Radiation safety duties of radiologist, radiographer & Patient
Radiation preventive maintenance
- General care
- Maintenance of log book
- Practical precautions
- Brakes & Locks
- HT Cables care
- Care of meters & Controls
- Care of tube stands & tracks
- Care of accessory equipment
- Functional tests for any faults
- Failure of x-ray tubes
- Failure of HT cables
- Common trouble – shooting & remedies
Quality controls in radiology
- QC Equipment requirements
- General features of QC Protocols
- Specific QC Protocols in imaging